Diabetes occurs when the demand and production of the insulin hormone produced by the beta cells of Islets of Langerhans of Pancreas. It is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body’s ability to use the energy found in food due to high blood glucose level. High blood glucose level can damage tiny blood vessels in kidney, heart, eye and nervous system . Hence it cause heart disease, stroke and kidney disease. Normal blood glucose level is 70 to 100 mg/Dl when fasting and up to 140mg/dl two hours after eating. Insulin is a hormone that facilitates the uptake of glucose, by cells, to produce energy. It also promotes the storage of glucose as glycogen, and plays an important role in lipid metabolism.
Three major types of diabetes can be developed. Type: 1, Type: 2 and Gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin dependent diabetes. It is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Symptoms include blurred vision, fatigue and weakness, increased thirst. Type 2 diabetes: is also known as adult-onset diabetes. It develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin. Symptoms incudes frequent , infections, fatigue, slow-healing sores. Gestational diabetes is a high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy and disappears after giving birth. It can occur at any stage of pregnancy. Symptoms include tiredness, a dry mouth.
Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. Hypertension is classified as either primary high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess body weight, excess salt in the diet, smoking, and alcohol use. The remaining 5–10% of cases is categorized as secondary high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries and use of birth control pills.The number of people with diabetes has raised from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 and 382 million people in 2013. The adults over 18 years of age have risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5 in 2014. In 2015, 30.3 million Americans, or 94% of the population had diabetes. Approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1diabetes. In 2016, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. In 2017, 425 million people had diabetes worldwide.
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